small wimshurst generator from cardboard and cds
From its development to 1883, it replaces other devices such as the \"Holtz\" and the \"worth\" machines.
This is one of the first ways to generate high pressure at the turn of the century to take photos of Röntgen more or less conveniently.
For example, this 1909 book on radiography: \"X\" rays in radiography and practice and theory, by S. R.
Bottone has an interesting chapter on the Wimshurst machines, how to attach them to curved tubes and how to use X-ray pictures.
In theory, my little Wimshurst machine should be able to do the job, but it will take a long time to get 10 good flashes.
This little crank is not ergonomic.
I don\'t have a curved tube either.
The Wimshurst machine is replaced by a more practical generator of about 1924, such as the Marx generator that is still used in laser printers and CRT TVs today (
Although these are also outdated).
For extremely high voltages, it is replaced by a Van de Graaf generator of about 1929, for example for early particle accelerators.
This instruction will show how I can build a small Wimshurst impact machine with two discs, a piece of scrap cardboard and some tin foil.
These are instructions for the materials and tools I lay down just to give ideas to others.
Of course, it is better not to use cardboard or make the equipment bigger.
Instructable consists of the following steps: Step 1)
First, the working principle of the Wimshurst machine will be explained. Step 2)
Materials and tools are displayed. Step 3)
Clear CDs. Step 4)
The metal strip will be made of aluminum foil and aluminum tape and glued to the CDs. Step 5)
The wheel is made of a disk and glued to it. Step 6)
The axle is installed in the support structure. Step 7)
Make a socket that will hold the mechanism. Step 8)
The Leiden jar and the mechanical installation will be installed on a base. Step 9)
Made two Leiden cans. Step 10)
The neutrals are made. Step 11)
Made a crank. Step 12)
The side of the socket is closed. Step 13)
The base is adjusted so that everything can be installed without moving around. Step 14)
The electrode consists of wires and aluminum foil. Step 15)
Debugging Step 16)The results.
Here is a very interesting website that contains the construction of a variety of static machines :~ Acmq/electrostatic.
You have any interest in the subject and it is well worth a visit.
There is another note: the build process is not really documented, but there is a list of materials.
If you look at it, you will most likely find something equivalent on my machine with some documentation about its functionality and its relationship to other parts.
Since this is an electrostatic effect machine, it is clearly using electrostatic effect or induction to generate static electricity.
This electrostatic induction is nothing more than the effect of the charge on a nearby object without physical contact.
For example, a positive power will attract a negative power and reject a positive power.
Therefore, in the conductor, the charge will be reallocated to make the static potential constant in the entire conductor.
The classic example is in (
But no contact)
This is a video of youuber rimorg, which gives a good explanation for the electroscope. (
He also made a CD wimshurst machine, but my machine is more aesthetically elegant and requires a lot less Tools)
Most electrostatic machines use an inductor to generate a net charge in an object.
On the simplest Power Plate.
For example, if a positive electricity is brought near the conductor, it can be seen that the conductor is polarized. (
To put it simply, this positive charge moves all (negative)
The electron is a bit towards it.
Of course, the charge x vector is a couple moment. )
Now you can ground the end of this conductor, which will remove the positive electricity located there, if you remove the connection and induced charge to the ground, you can see a net charge left in the conductor.
This is a video like this.
Look at this YouTube Thomas Kim channel.
He has a variety of interesting static machines made of PET bottles and discs, and he doesn\'t provide much information that may be for presentation.
He also has a CD wimshurst machine. (
But my spark is bigger.
I did get a second idea from him about the use of aluminum strips for disks. )
The Wimshurst machine and all the other electrostatic impact machines are nothing more than an elegant, mechanized dual-charge.
The Wimshurst machine consists of two parallel reverse rotating discs with metal strips.
The strip passes under the so-called \"neutralizer\" Rod, which separates the charge on the Strip, and the strip is also combed to harvest the accumulated charge on the Strip.
A good explanation is that the execution of the Wimshurst machine can be found on the following website: ~ udp/Article/wimshurst.
How French is HtmIt, if you know some French, it is definitely worth reading (
Because it also gives instructions on how to do electrostatic painting using the electrostatic shurst machine).
The machine I built is a mirror image of the machine explained in that link, so I will give a short parallel English explanation.
In the main picture of this step, you can see that there are 6 different areas on the disc. (
Because everything is symmetrical, the same 6 areas will appear on the other side of the disc)
Area 1 there will be some static electricity on the metal strip even before the disc starts to rotate.
Because just touch or process the disks is enough to charge them.
This charge zooms itself up when the disk rotates.
For example, the schematic diagram starts with area 1 and there is a net charge on the back disk strip.
The field of this charge causes some polarization of the second disk.
Like a picture.
2 zone 2 when the current metal strip passes through the front brush of the neutralizer Rod, some charges are rejected through the rod onto the strip opposite the disk.
This is similar to the picture.
2 where \"ground\" is replaced by another conductor.
Area 3 when the contact with the Zhonghe agent Rod brush is lost, the strip still retains a net positive electricity. (
If you subtract one charge, you have one charge left)Similar to Fig.
3So, the disk on the back still has a net charge and (upper)
The front strip is now with positive electricity.
Secondly, the front plate is in the other (bottom)
There is now a net negative power here.
Keep in mind that the rear plate will also turn, but in the opposite direction.
In area 4, the back disc is in contact with the sum bar in the back.
The negative electricity on the back is generated in exactly the same way as the second zone.
Positive charge repels positive charge (
Or attract negative power because it is mainly a mobile negative power)
On the other side of the disk.
Zone 5 is the same, Zone 5 is the opposite of Zone 1, where the net positive electricity on the front disk makes the rear disk polarized.
When the rear disk moves to Zone 4.
The sixth area here, the rear disk with the same charge and the strip of the front disk pass under the comblike structure.
Since two bars on both disks have the same charge, they are mutually exclusive.
Secondly, the comb acts like a Faraday cage, so the charge on the strap wants to escape out to the comb very much.
This is what happened.
The comb does not require physical contact with the band because it has a conductive point and the electric field towards the point is always very strong, so the air breaks down a bit, the resulting ions provide a path for the charge on the Strip to escape to the low potential of the comb.
When running the Wimhurst machine, this can be seen from one of the points to the small purple line of the disk.
The charge on the comb is immediately transferred to the Leyden jar where the charge/voltage accumulates to the spark. (
Preferably in a spark gap, or on a disk strip)
Or, if there are a lot of sharp edges, it will disappear in the Crown or in the ionic wind.
Wikipedia has an interesting animated gif that shows everything that was said before in the animation, but it\'s a bit complicated to infer from it how everything works and the compact explanation.
In theory, the metal strip is not really necessary, which should be possible, only with some charge on the surface of the disk.
A Wimshurst is slowly called a Bonetti machine without metal.
But you need an electrostatic generator.
For example, a normal Wimshurst Machine)
Just start this generator.
This Wimshurst machine is made entirely of scrap and small pieces of commonly used materials on a daily basis.
Simple manual tools only.
I just used these tools and materials and obviously they are not ideal.
For example, Cardboard is a terrible material option for any project involving static electricity, but this is the only material I can use at the moment.
Materials used: tools used: the main components of the Wimshurst machine are two discs.
Two disks are required for the Wimshurst machine, so two CDs are used.
One can scratch the metal layer on a cd with a grinding sponge.
This requires some effort depending on the CD.
An easier way is to scrape the plastic coating on the metal layer and soak the CD in a small layer of hydrochloric acid.
It is surprising that the metal will not be corroded, but one can easily rub it off.
FirstExpressions mentioned in the comments a way that might be more elegant.
If you stick some solid tape on the coating (
On the side where you see the company letter)
, When you peel the tape, the coating will stick to the tape.
I \'ve tested it, but you still need to scrape off some stubborn stuff.
There must be small metal strips on the disc.
I made two different types of discs.
Pair with ordinary kitchen aluminum foil strips.
There is also a second double aluminum belt. (
Because I ruined the first pair. it\'s not good anyway.
The two methods are equally effective, and the only difference is that the amount of work on the aluminum foil is much larger because the aluminum foil is very fragile and you have to attach them to the plastic tray with a good glue.
These strips stick together around the center of the disk.
There are some things to consider.
The bar is conducted, which means there is a theoretical upper limit on the maximum spark length.
If the voltage on the Leyden jar is too high (
Too large spark gap)
, The spark can jump from the collection comb, through the gap between the guide bands, onto the neutralizer bar, through more strips, and onto another collection comb.
Therefore, the theoretical voltage is \"a little more\" than \"the sum of all the gaps between the comb to the Strip and the cross strip \".
Because the arc likes to consist of a whole, it is a little longer than the distance, and it needs more voltage to be composed of different parts.
So you want as many distance bars as possible. . .
But: The charge will leak and there will be a \"Corona\" at every sharp conduction point connected to the Leiden jar \".
As mentioned earlier, the air around the sharp point is easily ionised.
In a very dark room, you can see the strongest crown, and there is a small purple light around the sharp point.
Because the machine is small, almost everything is sharp.
You can get rid of it by putting the ball at the end instead of bending the wire at the sharp bend.
However, the wire is thin and will be sent out by itself.
That\'s why even if the current is negligible, more professional machines always use copper tubes and wires.
But the information is, the cost is leaked (
And tiny machine leaks a lot)
Therefore, the machine must provide enough current to offset the leakage.
Therefore, there must be a considerable area.
So, you have to find some balance between the size and number of bars.
Two templates were made, the first was to place 18 around the disk, and later 16 templates were made for the aluminum foil strip to increase the space between the strips.
Both templates are attached to. svg and a . png format.
Make aluminum strips: cut some foil carefully (
With a sharp knife)
Small rectangular pieces of 30mm x 12mm.
But I would spend 20mm x 10mm if I redo it!
All of these rectangles are then cut into a ladder so that the one side remains 12mm and the other side is now 7. 5 mm.
Finally, all corners of the aluminum strip are rounded with scissors.
Because, as mentioned earlier, sharp points leak the charge into the air.
Make aluminum strip: the aluminum strip is much stronger than the foil, so make a small template and go back to the tape and cut it off with scissors.
This tape can be pasted directly onto the disk. The clean (Transparent)
The disc is pasted with some tape on the template, and the tape is glued to it one by one.
CDs will be driven by rubber bands.
These rubber bands will be guided by some wheels, two of which are attached to the drive shaft and two to the free spinning disc.
The wheel attached to the CDs consists of 3 large disks (
38mm in diameter so that it fits the small bump ring on the CD)
And a small dish (
Diameter: It\'s just small. I didn\'t measure it. it doesn\'t matter much.
Look at the first photo. )
The cardboard is about 1.
The large disk is 2mm thick, 1.
5mm inner plate, small plate. (
But thickness does not matter, as long as there is rubber band on the wheel)
In each hole, drill a hole in the center and zoom in so that the toothpick can be inserted without creating too much friction.
Everything around the hole is polished so that there is no rest in the hole.
Then all the disks stick together in this way: 2 big, small, 1 big.
The wheels are then glued to the small ring on the CD with double-layer cardboard.
On my second cd I used double sided tape so it wouldn\'t stick too much if I wanted to change the cd with a new cd, people can stick the wheels to the new cd.
It\'s hard if you stick the wheel on it.
Then, two small pieces of \"butter paper\" or \"baking paper\" enter between the two discs to minimize the friction when they rotate in the opposite direction.
The wheel on the drive shaft wheel drive shaft is similar, but there are only two large discs (Diameter ≃ 4. 8 cm)
And smaller disks (Diameter ≃ 4. 4 cm).
Increase the gasket between the drive wheels so that the thickness is roughly equal to the thickness of the two CDs.
This gasket is a bit too big, which is good because it will reduce some tension on CDs later.
I used a small metal stick lying around as a drive shaft, but I highly recommend using wood or something because it\'s hard to fix the wheel (
Stick to the drive shaft with glue.
There are now two sets of wheels, two of which are glued to the drive shaft and two are attached to the disc.
The infrastructure for installing the shaft and wheels is two pieces of cardboard.
The shape of the cardboard is constructed by drawing two circles with a diameter of 5 cm on the cardboard, and their center is 7 cm apart. 5 mm thick. (
Note that this shape may be too wide as I noticed a jump from the comb to a thin, thin arc on the cardboard.
Maybe the circle 3 cm wide would be better.
See the \"debug\" steps of how I can prevent these small arcs. )
Drill holes and zoom in at the center of the circle so that the drive shaft and disc shaft can be freely inserted and rotated. (
Although the disc axis is not necessary, because the disc itself can rotate freely around the axis)
Two small round gaskets on each side (0.
Thick cardboard 5mm)
To reduce friction, cut out some circles from the baking paper.
The shaft can then be mounted on these boards.
Nothing is stuck together in this step, so everything can be uninstalled again.
Finally, rubber bands can be added.
On the one hand, the rubber band only turns around two wheels.
On the other hand, let the rubber band cross by itself.
This results in the effect that when the drive shaft rotates, the two discs rotate in the opposite direction.
The most important part of the machine is done, but it still needs some infrastructure to connect everything together.
Will be inserted into some slot of the mechanism.
This is done by simply cutting out 4 half circles of 12 cm (
The size of the CD is the same, but this size does not matter)
With strong cardboard
In all 4 semi-circles, drill a hole for the drive shaft and expand.
They must be large enough so that the drive shaft can rotate without friction.
On two half circles, place the part that holds the wheel so that the shaft wheel hole is aligned, and the part is perpendicular to the straight edge of the half circle.
The edges of the support are traced out and cut off from the half circle.
One should be able to slide the support into half of their circles and should be very tight.
If necessary, Polish some edges or glue on some small pieces of cardboard.
The half piece of cardboard cut out of this shape is glued to the remaining two complete half rings.
Cut a small seam from the top to the hole.
When the mechanism is inserted into the slot, the drive shaft will slide down.
Assemble the mechanism with wheels and discs again, press the two semi-circular things on the long support piece, and measure the thickness.
Then cut out a piece of cardboard with a thickness of 12 cm x, which will be the bottom of the socket.
Some rectangular spaces have been cut off (
Don\'t mind the small pieces you see in the photo, I\'m not using these)
, Their size is minus the thickness of the two semi-circular pieces.
The two half-circle blocks are glued vertically to the rectangular block, and the interval blocks are stuck in the middle to obtain support, so that they do not hinder the mechanism when inserted into the mechanism.
If everything is done correctly, you can slide the mechanism into the socket and everything should be safe and tight.
So, everything can be disassembled without glue.
A ground base is cut off, which will be used to install everything.
This shape is based on a half circle with a diameter of 11. 8 cm.
On the straight edge of half a circle, there is an extra rectangular area, which is the same size as the bottom of the mechanism socket.
On one side of the curve, two circles with a radius of 6 cm, their center is on the cross line of the curve, with a radial line of 45 ° angle relative to the straight edge.
These will be the location of the Leiden jar.
It\'s a bit complicated to explain in words, so I\'m going to provide a schematic: the Leyden can is just a capacitor.
But a capacitor with a large voltage can be handled.
The best thing to do is to make it out of glass or solid plastic.
But there is no suitable size at the moment, so the Leyden jar was built with some rolled-up transparent pieces.
First made the hat.
The cap consists of small cardboard plates with a diameter of about 5 cm.
And small flexible strips of cardboard diameter x pi length and 1.
5 cm wide, so the disk can be surrounded tightly.
Use two smaller pieces of cardboard to keep the tape around the disk closed and tight.
Everything is stuck together and people can see the results in the second photo.
This is done 4 times, the two covers will be used as the top and there is a hole slot where the wire will run.
Transparent paper in A4 format is cut vertically into 3 equal parts of about 7 cm.
Connect two with some tape to form a long belt.
When rolled up, it will have more than one layer, which increases the voltage it can handle.
Before rolling up, a 5 cm wide aluminum foil strip was attached with some tape.
So when everything is rolled up there is an aluminum layer inside.
When rolled up, it is inserted into two lids and released to allow it to be adjusted according to the size of the lid.
Make sure the upper limit is still a bit too big as there are still layers to add.
Roll and aluminum foil are fixed with some tape.
Outside, the second piece of aluminum foil (again 5 cm)
Add and protect.
Inside and outside, a small wire was pasted on bare aluminum.
The third and final layer of the transparent film now rolls around everything, covering the aluminum foil outside.
Therefore, if a person touches it, he will not be shocked.
The finished roll should now be placed tightly in the hat.
The inner wire should go through the hole in the top cover.
The second purpose of the Leyden jar is to serve as a supporting structure for collecting combs.
Draw four circles 4 cm in diameter on a piece of cardboard and draw a straight line 2.
5 cm from the center of each circle. These semi-circle semi-
Cut the rectangular shape in the center of the circle and drill holes.
Two of the four shapes, drill an extra hole near the first hole.
The comb structure uses some thick and sturdy copper wire.
It\'s hard to explain the shape in the text, I mean the picture of the shape. (
Although they are not the best)
The Leyden jar is located on a small circle on the ground base, and the copper wire is bent so fast that it passes through the two Red Line brackets at the top of the jar, facing the disc and bending around the two discs within a certain distance.
Try to avoid the inward bending I do.
Some thinner wires are welded to the comb structure to form an effective comb.
The small comb wire should not touch the rotating disk.
As mentioned in explaining how it works, there must still be some neutrals.
For this reason, from 12 cm long and ~ 1 made of cardboard.
5 cm wide band with a circle 2 cm wide in the center.
This will be support for the \"stick.
These rods are nothing more than a wire that is twisted together, and the ends are stripped away and spread out like a bristle.
The line is glued to the cardboard and bent inward at both ends.
Maybe it would be better to stick them on the other side rather than see them in the third photo.
More flexibly adjust the distance between the sum bar and the comb.
The rod should be tied to the support.
I connected them at a 45 ° angle with a collection comb (
But the angle of 60 ° may be better, as this increases the distance between the brush and the comb, which makes it unlikely that the arc on the aluminum strip will occur.
The Neutralizer bar is fixed with a small hook made of cardboard.
A small piece of cardboard with a large piece of cardboard on it that can be hooked below (
Can be solved if needed.
To really work, a method of rotating the drive shaft is needed.
The easiest way is to use a simple crank.
The crank is made of cardboard and toothpick.
The crank consists of two main parts, the \"arm\" and the \"handle\" that rotates freely \".
The arm consists of shapes defined by two circles, one with a diameter of 2 cm and one with a diameter of 1.
2 cm is 2 apart from their center. 5 cm.
Both centers of the slot have a hole drilled through a large circle, a hole tightly around the drive shaft, and then through a small circle loosely around the toothpick.
Something like this: 3 extra (2 cm)
Big and 2 extra (1. 2 cm)
Cut out the small plate.
Again, this is the case before drilling in their center.
The large disk is glued to the position of the large circle of the handle, two on one side facing the machine and one on the other.
The small disk is glued to the position of the small circle, one on each side.
Eight small discs for handle with diameter 1.
The 2 cm was cut out and a hole was drilled in their center.
Seven of them were placed on the toothpick and stuck firmly to the toothpick in a way that formed a cylinder.
Toothpicks are trimmed on one side and holes on the other side through the small round side of the arm.
The last disc is glued to the end of the toothpick that runs through the arm.
It sticks to the toothpick in such a way, but does not stick to the arm so that the handle can rotate freely.
This is a schematic diagram of the assembled arm.
Note that the handle will never stick to the arm as it has to rotate freely.
Green = handle, blue = arm, red = glue, orange = toothpick, gray = drive shaft.
The crank can be pushed to the drive shaft and glued with very strong glue.
I added an extra gasket but it stuck to the crank.
There must be a certain distance between the crank and the mechanism so that the mechanism can still slide into the socket without the crank blocking anything.
So far, the socket to keep the mechanism has been opened on the curved side.
These edges are covered in this step.
This is a small step and it is more suitable for the steps of the actual build of the socket, but I am trying to track the chronological order of the build.
It is convenient to cover the socket as late as possible, as it has only aesthetic value, but prevents further patching inside the socket. (
Make the socket tighter or more loose, for example)
The mechanism is placed into the socket and the side is measured to the slit in the middle.
Pay attention to the position where the disc enters the socket.
The resulting shape is painted on a thin piece of cardboard and cut out precisely.
And make sure they don\'t get in the way of the lid when the disc turns.
The cardboard is bent around a cylindrical object and the result can be seen in the first picture.
The second picture shows the socket when the cover is in place.
While the Leiden jar has been fully functional, the mechanism in its socket is still independent and loose.
Turning the crank causes everything to shake, and the fragile bars on the disk can be damaged by hitting the comb.
It\'s better not to use Leiden cans and sockets.
Fixed permanently on the base so they can\'t move the position.
For Leiden cans: for each Leiden jar, cut out a ring of Leiden jars with the same diameter.
In each circle, a shape that is not rotated and symmetrical is cut (
So, basically any shape except the circle, the square/rectangle is the easiest).
The square sticks to the base so that their circles can surround them where the Leiden jars should be.
The circles stick to the Leiden jar so that they can be placed on a square fixed in position and cannot be turned or moved.
For the socket: the same thing happens to the socket, but use the same rectangle as the lower side of the socket instead of the circle.
Cut out a smaller rectangle from this rectangle.
In this way, the disc does not touch the comb when the Leyden jars are fixed in their position.
Regarding the last picture, I cut two thin cardboard sheets at the bottom edge of the socket to glue.
I don\'t know why I did this because they have absolutely no purpose.
Since the electrodes are very simple, they are just two long hard copper wires with 2 u bends and are squeezed around the copper wire at the top of the Leiden jar with pliers.
The spherical ball is made of broken aluminum foil (
Mainly because I don\'t have metal balls around me and can\'t find them in a DIY shop nearby)
The balls are as spherical as possible and pushed to the electrode.
For some reason I don\'t fully understand why, the spark is a bit big, there is a big ball on one electrode and a small ball on the other.
Because this is a very small Wimshurst machine, cardboard is definitely not the ideal material for electrostatic materials, so many things will go wrong.
The first is the mechanism.
If there is no effect, turn the crank in another way.
I have the rubber band in the configuration that crosses the front and the rubber band in the back (
On the same side of the crank)is not crossed.
Turning the crank to the opposite direction of the clock works, but nothing happens when I turn the crank to the opposite direction. (
If you consider how this device works, it\'s actually logical)
This is a problem for others to isolate everything and reduce the corona.
The ideal way to find a leak is to turn your machine (
When the electrodes are away from each other (
Their ball mount))
In a very dark room.
Adapt your eyes and you will see glowing things, arcs and whiskeys, crowns. . .
In essence, there are only 6 places where light is allowed.
Brush 4 Zhonghe agent rods and collect 2 Combs (
Both sides, so 8 places technically)
It will be the brightest, but after a few minutes in the dark you will see a lot of things.
All others should be minimized by isolation.
In the picture, you can see some pictures, the long exposure is about 15 seconds, you can see some of the Corona on the brush, but the other crowns are very weak and almost invisible.
If the voltage is too high, the arc skips the band.
If this happens too quickly, one might rearrange the aluminum bars on the disk.
CoronaAs said before that every sharp point, bend point or corener will have some corona that leaks the charge from the Leiden jar.
This will reduce your ability to reach high voltage for large Sparks.
For example, my comb is too close to the cardboard support structure, and in the dark it shines very small, thin, purple from the comb to the cardboard.
I bent the end of the comb a bit, which in some way reduced that.
Secondly, the extremely faint glowing tongue jumps out of the metal strip on the disk to the cardboard.
These things can only be seen in a very dark room and your eyes will be adjusted.
The solution to this problem is to cover all the cardboard and non-cardboard
Basic conductor in electrical tape.
In the case of the aluminum strip, I added a very large circular transparent plate gasket (Diameter 5. 5 cm)
Next to the cardboard on the disc shaft.
Arc on the strap.
This can be seen in the picture as there are bright lights between the stripes.
This is only a limitation of bars, which can be reduced by reducing the number and size of bars on the disc.
For example, I go from 18 aluminum foil strips to 16 thinner aluminum strip strips.
Now, I don\'t have an arc on the stripe anymore.
The maximum arc size on the electrode is large. Can of Leyden
On one occasion, the wire connecting the two Leiden jars ran into one of the Leiden jars.
A small glow can be seen in that position on the transparent paper. (
This shows that the transparent film is not an ideal conductor either. )So, I have 3-
4 layers of rolled transparent plate between two aluminum layers in the Leiden tank.
However, the previous instructions indicate that the transparent film may be too thin and conductive slightly.
Therefore, it is better to use glass or a thicker plastic layer.
At the end of the neutralizer rodAnd, the cardboard neutralizer bar near the Leiden jar began to shine purple in a corner.
This is eliminated by covering the neutrals with tape.
The machine is finished.
These pictures show the final machine from different angles. (
The electrical tape is not very sticky, and it starts to loosen again)
Secondly, some pictures of sparks are included.
The spark in the picture is about 1. 2 -1. 3 mm large.
But in nearly 2 cm countries, it is not a big problem to be much larger.
However, capturing them in the video is a bigger problem because I have to sit in an uncomfortable position and can\'t turn the crank fast enough and long enough.
Secondly, because the spark duration is very short, people have to have some luck to put them in the frame.
Since this is a very small wimshurst machine, people have to turn the crank quickly in order to be able to fill the Leiden jar.
So the spark of 1-1.
5 cm is definitely no problem.
Sparks up to 2 when the weather is dry-2.
Under some efforts, 5 cm is within scope.
Since you might want an animation, I uploaded a part of the video to an animated gif in the last image.
It does take some time to load.
I also uploaded a video so you can hear the sound (
Although you won\'t be impressed with the sound quality).
Another interesting thing about this small cardboard Wimshurst machine is that it\'s easy to remove it almost completely to replace a single part and reassemble it.
I made an animation in the last animation because I really don\'t know what to do with the images.
So, yes, that\'s it. I hope you like it.
I would be happy to answer the question.
Thank you if you point out my mistakes in continental English.