multi purpose rotary machine - mulling, welding, pottery, photography turntable
We will make a multi-purpose rotating machine that is running in circulation.
Something with a large plate that can be turned at an adjustable, reliable and consistent speed.
We are going to use an old washing machine to drive the motor and frame, an abandoned microwave gives us an electronic timer and the rest of the garbage is made up of other garbage.
This structure is quite big!
Maybe I should do it three or four times.
It contains details on how to connect and implement several different methods of speed control for the motor of the old washing machine (
Useful for any number of items)
, By rotating welding, green sand mold, microwave timer, etc).
You can hang out from start to finish and see how I make the whole machine or you can jump to the section that works best for you.
For this reason, it\'s a little quick to hear
Provide you with reference: Step 1-
4 Remove material for upckyclingstep 5-
9 General Machine structure step 10-
Step 14-rotate platter-21 Re-
Use Arduino\'s range of winding, washing machine motor, basic speed control and closed loop control. Steps 27-
We need 30 more mechanical deceleration (pulley talk)Step 31-
34 microwave timer (
Simple timing solution for many projects step 35-
360 shot 37-
Details of the machine ,(
A bit in the process)
Step xxx rotary welding workbench and pottery wheel (
Very much in the process)
Although this step is where I encourage you to reuse the crap that is broken for your project.
I call it a material-based design, starting with evaluating the \"trash\" you have easy access to, thinking about what you want your project to achieve and linking the two together.
3D modeling and CAD are great, I am a huge fan but I don\'t really like to abstract the design from the material and then use prime fresh (
And often very expensive)
Make the materials of the above design.
Therefore, I strongly advocate a close connection with the materials you plan to use (
And realize where they come from, environmental costs, etc. ).
Even if you model primarily in CAD, getting touch and hands-on will make you a better designer.
At least that\'s what I think.
One of the super benefits of Upcycling is that when you take things apart, you get an insight into how others used to design things!
For this workshop tool we want a spin action and like many people I have an old washing machine.
But both the main bearing and the motor are good. . . Perfect.
Let\'s see what we can use.
Unscrew the outside and pull things apart.
We want to get the main drum out (
Get ready to catch water or do it outside! )
, Salvage bearings, spiders, rollers, frames, looms, drive belts, motors and some control board components.
Oh, for this, we will also use the steel body of the machine.
Once you remove the drive wheel from the spindle, you should be able to push the shaft out of the bearing.
This may need to be persuaded with a hammer.
Protect the end of the shaft with waste wood, otherwise the hammer may \"miss\"
Shaping it, the drive wheel will not return to Nice.
Yes, there are many used washing machines inside.
Main water pressure rated solenoid valve, heating element, beautiful stainless steel drum, pirex glass bowl, main power pump and even a bunch of beautiful coach screws (
These hold the two halves of the plastic bucket together)!
It would be nice to have a timer to turn off the machine after using it for 2 minutes as it is used to process green casting sand.
The microwave timer is perfect for this-
And many other projects!
It has a ready-made electric timer that controls the relay.
It even has a clear display showing the rest of the time. . .
The frame of my washing machine is a bit rusty and very dirty (
It\'s been a while outside).
If you do such a project, I suggest you buy a machine in better condition.
Although I went, it meant cleaning (
Pressure washing: brush off rust with P and wire.
I want to store it with something inside.
I might put the shelf in.
So it\'s not that small circular port.
Hole, I cut a square opening in front with angle grinder and split plate (
This is about the size of my old scrap kitchen cabinet door). . .
To prevent accidents, the edges of the cut are polished smooth and all bare metal is covered with metal paint.
The bearings are mounted in the large plastic washing machine drum, after removing them roughly with jigsaw puzzles, I used a band saw and then made a cylindrical part with a lathe, can be installed well in the \"holesaw siz\" hole.
This is entirely possible without a band saw or lathe, and it will only take longer to cut it out using a hand saw and file. . .
The original top of this washing machine is a bit too broken to use.
It is made of plastic laminated on board, and the board has been damp and yield to the softening effect resulting from it.
Fortunately, I recently got a nice little piece of fish from the skip fish.
I don\'t know what it is like, but it looks like some darker wood with a thickness of more than 1 \"so it will do a good job.
None of the edges are straight and appear to be cut with a jigsaw puzzle to fit the curved wall.
The circular saw with a guide can assemble this stuff well, which is a bit difficult to push the table.
Adding the plywood top helps to harden the whole structure, but I still want the bearing holder to be safer, so I added some hard oak wood that I have grinded with the chainsaw (
Look at my CS factory)
A few years ago.
It is intensive, powerful and hard-working, so it should work well.
I ripped it in half on the band saw and used some recycled engine bolts that were good and long enough to clip the two halves together.
Holessaw then creates the opening of the receiving bearing block.
Loosening the bolts allows me to slide the bearing blocks, tighten them and lock the bearings in place.
For more details, please see the picture notes. . .
I have cut a few wooden spacers so that the lid can adapt to the uneven curve of the frame of the sheet metal washing machine.
A bit of a fuss, it is beautiful and square, strong and flat, ready to screw in place.
The aluminum washing machine \"Spider\" needs to be removed from the drum.
My one is rivet so need to drill holes to disassemble.
Once clear, this particular one will need a groove to flush with the underside of the platter we are making.
The rest of what I used to cover and some template layers was cut into circles.
I got this template from a company near us that uses it to produce packing boxes for shipping.
They have quite a big 3x2. 5ft \'off-
Cuts they can\'t use: D this is not a high quality thing, but when laminated together, the defects in a single sheet disappear and are very strong!
To make stronger glue, I quickly applied the surface of the plywood with a Sander.
I found a \"best\" face and specified it as \"top\" of the platter \".
On other joints, the glue is evenly distributed and no patches are found.
Then clip the whole thing.
The washing machine motor is designed for high speed operation (
More information later)
So we need to use big pulleys that fit the spider shaft.
The pulley is tilted and if used as designed, the pulley will be stuck on the chassis, so we need to install it in turn.
It is very easy to cut or archive rectangular keyway as aluminum, so this is possible.
There are a lot of other types of motors available for this project, and some may be better options, but since I am responsible here, I have (
You should be able to get your hands)
Motor or two spare washing machines-
That\'s what we\'re talking about.
Theoretical series without loss-
A winding motor powered at a constant voltage has the following speed to slow down when applying a load: for each load increased by four times, the shaft speed is halved.
Think about it, it becomes very important!
The speed has dropped (quite a bit)
, And varies depending on the load
For example, when we stir the sand, rotate the welded workpiece or manipulate the clay, it is a pain if we want a constant rotational speed. 2.
If there is no load on the shaft, the speed will rise-
No theoretical limit!
In fact, on a large high-speed motor like a washing machine motor, the limit may be that the rotating stator is centrifugal and separated (bad -
See Warning below).
Determine the connection material (
Should be easy
Two connections, about 2 ohms.
The value will be slightly different depending on the position of the brush on the stator, so a slow rotation of the motor shaft may change the value.
Series field winding ~ 2 ohmsAC tachometer ~ More than 180 ohms
2 contacts for temperature protection (
Read 0 ohms often, but see
Grounding point of motor frame with 12 v Workbench power supply (briefly).
Or by parallel the 1kw heating element with the stator (see diagram).
Warning: do not connect the unloaded motor to its rated voltage.
It may not survive, and in the worst case it may throw shrapnel at you.
In the previous steps, we learned that without the load, this series of winding universal motors will run frantically and quickly and tear themselves into pieces.
What\'s worse is that it slows down the load.
What we need is speed control, there are several different ways.
Use the simple triac circuit shown in the next step.
Purchase and use pre-
Make the motor controller, make and understand the ratio-integral-derivative (PID)
Motor Controller (
This is an introduction to this topic)
Use a micro-controller like Arduino in triac-based circuits.
This is our route here.
Useful small documents for motor identification-
Good explanation for PID motor control.
These are some simple General Motors control circuits I used to do.
They are based on a power triac (T1)
This is due to a two-way trigger diode (D1).
This circuit is simple and time-proven.
Historically, versions of this circuit have been used to control many different universal motors, from circular saws to vacuum cleaners.
I used to use these circuits on my lathe instructions so I\'m not going to go again
Discuss this information in detail here (
Look at my steps 2 to 6).
The first schematic diagram shows the most basic of these circuits, and the second and third are added in the stage of rectification, low voltage, and high current, which makes the motor maintain a better speed under load (
When you put the load on the motor, it won\'t be so much slower.
This records some further improvements to this circuit, using a smaller triac to trigger the main circuit: There\'s a lot to be said for the simplicity of this circuit, if I\'m doing this project, I might consider doing another project instead of the closed loop arduino version I made.
The speed control circuit I built was made by Saulius bandzeviius-
I have included a pdf of his schematic in this step, but can also check his article here.
It is caused by Arduino\'s PID Library Brett Polger.
The basic principle of this closed-loop system is that Arduino receives AC signals from the motor tachometer (
Adjusted by LM393 chip-pinout above)
To determine the actual speed of the motor and compare it to \"set speed-
RPM you want the motor to rotate.
It then uses the PID algorithm to determine when a control pulse is sent to the optical coupling triac, which in turn activates and allows the power supply voltage pulse to be sent to the motor. . .
The power supply AC is a sine wave shape and the Arduino needs to know the point where the AC voltage goes through 0 v-
\"Zero Cross \".
Arduino needs to know this in order to trigger the trigger action of triac when.
This document describes a simple zero crossover circuit and why we want it: the circuit I made uses a cheap small PC816 optical coupler to isolate the arduino from the supply voltage, this is a safer method than the one used above.
Trigger power supply triac (the BTA16)
We use the MOC3023M optical coupler connected to the Arduino pin A3.
The photoelectric coupler separates the relatively fragile 5 v Arduino micro-controller from the main supply voltage triac.
The transient is basically a voltage spike caused by an inductive load, such as a motor.
They cause serious damage and trigger that triac does not want
Basically led to unstable and unpredictable motor operation.
The transient state of the buffer circuit\'s UBS.
It consists of resistance R14 and capacitance c4.
I also added a 400 V rheostat in parallel with R14 and C4 (
Not shown in schematic).
Rheostat is a device that blocks current unless a certain high voltage is reached, at which point it drops suddenly.
If a voltage spike occurs, it is very useful for redirecting the voltage spike.
The display displays the set point RPM and the RPM actually measured.
Set in the code to refresh every 2 seconds.
If you do more than that, Arduino may have a hard time keeping up with other PID operations.
The LCD Display used is a popular 16x2 HD44780 LCD with a serial interface.
To show, I used the great library written by F Malpartida.
You can download that library here (
The page also contains some useful notes on identifying the I2C modules you are using and other troubleshoot. . .
When I do a project like this, I get a lot of components from the old board.
Although it is cheap alone, they will increase the cost and it is a pain to wait for delivery. To de-
I welded a lot of things with a heat gun and pliers.
It\'s not gentle, I wouldn\'t recommend it for what you really care about (
But it works!
This is an exception to resistance!
They are often used and are so cheap that it saves a lot of time to have a bunch of new values with known values.
I\'m still salvaging and using power resistors (1W and up)though.
To use the recycled capacitors, connect them in parallel (
Simply add the capacitor together
To top up the required cap value (
Two or more parallel capacitors are usually better than a higher value cap).
The following code refers to the schematic diagram of Saulius bandzeviius on Step 17 (
I\'ll draw a schematic of the circuit I finally created when I have time, but it\'s very close)
I install components with a Perfboard-
I still think this is the best way to make a prototype that you plan to put into use! R1 3k3 (
For all resistors except R14, consider getting a 1/4 W resistance pack like this
Salvaging a lot of small resistors is too much work, it will last you a lot of items once you have a package)
R2 2k2 R3 4k7 R4 470 R3 100 k R6 10 k R7 30 k 0. 5W R8 30k 0.
5 W R9 10 k R10 1 k R11 360 R12 360 R13 470 R14 100 5WC1 220nF (
Salvage all hats if you can
Their costs add up quickly and are easy to salvage)
C2 100nF C3 47nF 600VC4 100nF 600 V C5 3300 uF 10 V C5 100nFD1 1N5817 any full diode bridge 400 Vmin.
D3 1N4007 drug Generation 4 BTA26 (
Although the BTA16 is enough for this motor)
Q1 S8050 or any pn switch transistor starting from 0.
LM393-7A and 20 V lm
Data sheets and application instructions any suitable 5 v power supply for PC817 OptocouplerU3 MOC3023 optical coupler U4 Arduino Nano V3 complete board.
I used the old phone charger F1 6-10A fuse F2 0.
5A fuseK1 any 5 V relay SW1 with 10A/250 v contacts dual 10A 250 V switch sw2 rotary encoder with button SW3 position with I2C serial interface friend with indicator light, city voltage can kill!
Please get qualified help if you have any questions.
Keep in mind that the radiator connected to triac is also a power supply voltage!
Insulation all contacts and wires and keep the lines as clean and tidy as possible.
You will see that I have the electronics installed (Bracket)
A wooden panel
This is convenient for prototyping
But it\'s certainly not the best thing to do in fire prevention. BEWARE.
When I am satisfied with the way it works, I may redo it.
This is designed to screw to the metal side of the gasket and provide an anchor pivot that can adjust the motor to stretch the drive belt.
The shelves have multiple benefits of providing internal storage, reinforcing side panels and blocking the top part, basically protecting the stray hands from electrical appliances, pulleys and belts.
I took some discarded \"shower wall\" layer material from the skip which is very close to the right size. . .
Once the motor is running and installed in place with the original polygon V belt, I have a rotating platform. Yeha!
With this, I think it would be nice to make the plate round.
To do this, I clipped the router to the workbench so that it could chew things on the edge and rotate the turntable. . .
You can learn from my compound mistakes here: 1 when you are tired but excited about the idea of canceling the large diameter power tool turn operation, don\'t do it late at night. 2.
Do not try to manually move it to the router bit while the entire machine is running.
I know, and I can\'t believe how silly it sounds.
That\'s how I started doing this, though.
Instead, in case the router bit is fully retracted, set the whole thing exactly where you want it to be.
Then use a slow incremental depth control to wolf down when the plate turns.
This is just a piece of cedar, as mentioned earlier, which makes prototyping convenient.
The holes of the switch and display are drilled and/or cut with a rolling saw.
The bracket of the circuit board only needs to be screwed to the back.
After making a lot of changes to the speed control circuit, I found it difficult to get reliable control at about 500 rpm.
The easy way is to add another deceleration pulley.
I used a part on a broken old grinder and turned the small pulley on the lathe up.
I\'m using another kind of gatheringv belt (
From another old washing machine)
So the groove is made using a 60 degree threaded tool
It may not be the exact outline.
But very close. . . Poly-
V-belts are very useful as they can use pulleys that are much smaller than the standard V-beltsbelt would.
I could have gone into town to cast a larger pulley with scrap aluminum, but the plywood pulley would have been sufficient under the action of speed and strength.
I fixed it on the lathe and gave it a little crown to help with the belt track.
On a pulley with a large diameter, the surface contact area is large enough that no groove needs to be cut (
This is not as good as plywood! )
In order to mount the ply pulley on the bearing I made and the smaller aluminum pulley, I cut a hole in it with holessaw and then carefully turned the hole into size. . .
With the larger pulleys and some tightened brackets glued to the smaller pulleys, it\'s time to test them! It works!
Turn it by hand, calculate the revolution, and we now have a speed reduction of 75 to 1.
This means that when the platter is rotated at 50 rpm (
Roughly what I aim at on mulling machines (
This is probably the heaviest burden)
, The motor will run at a speed of 3,750 rpm.
This is still not the most appropriate for this type of motor, which may be more like 7000 rpm, but this is a big improvement!
I could have simply fixed the microwave timer to the side of the machine, but I wanted something more integrated.
To do so, it needs to be removed further. . .
The stick on the keyboard can be stripped and unplugged.
From here we can attach it to the control panel we like.
A small groove on the panel is cut with a table and a chisel, fixing the keyboard inside.
I was lucky to have a little ribbon cable through the power switch hole and then I cut a hole for the digital reading with a rolling saw.
A brand new face can be made for the keyboard, changing the button name to less microwave/food oriented. It;
This is not necessary, though, and I am happy with the visible root of the device.
After cutting the keyboard into size with scissors (
Do not trace through any wires)
, The rest is to make a little extension for the ribbon cable that is not long enough.
This is a problem to unhook the connector from the pcb and weld it on the wire. Easy to say -
A little fidgety. . .
But the effect is good.
I added a healthy hot bead around all welded joints for insulation and strain relief.
I would like to be able to shoot interesting curiosity to rotate without background interference or the difficulty of moving the camera around the item (
It\'s hard to do it smoothly).
I have a bunch of \"plastic cards \"(
I don\'t know what it\'s called? )
I caught fish from the skip fish. . . .
I will upload vids when I have a chance, but here it is using-
The rotation speed is slow and the effect is good: D lighting is very important. . .
Just in case you want to know, \"Green Sand\" is a mixture of sand, clay, water and secret ingredients that you use to make molds for casting molten metal materials (
You can check my adventures in aluminum casting on my YouTube channel: Making and Remaking
Conditioning large green sand is an art form that takes a long time with hands.
The mulling machine set on the timer does this for you. . .
The bowl of the Mulling machine was made of a small piece of galvanized metal sheet and I dug it out of the ground on my parents\' farm. . .
I imagine the sand will eat the bare plywood very quickly and I need to weld splash protection anyway. . . .
The circular base is simply pulled out with a compass, roughly cut out with an angle grinder, and glued to the plate with double-sided tape. .
Once in place, I can implement it with flaps --
When hovering, the disc on the angle grinder. .
The edge of the bowl is made of two pieces of scrap (
Much more awkward than a long piece, but sometimes you have to deal with what you get)
Drill holes and screw them on the plywood platter.
As you can see, when this part of the galvanized is warned and rusted, I paint the pieces Black. . .
Supporting the plows and the frame of the wheels, we can use some pieces of angle iron from the unwanted old bed frame. . .
I used \"off cut\" to make the cross section \"(
A pretty good deadline, admittedly)of oak.
This should be strong enough and it is easy to attach the wheels and plows to it.
The angle iron is bolted to the corner of the frame of the washing machine, and the oak beams span the gap between them.
This is in the test, so we will see how strict it is in use. . .
It took me a while to wonder what would be used for Mueller\'s compaction wheel.
I want to pour concrete in an old plastic bucket, ready to do so, and when I find these bad cast iron boys, mostly buried, walking on my parents\' farm. . .
Jackpot: they are heavy enough and the size is right and it happens that there is a tube scrapped and I have been very good with it as an axle.
All I need to do is cut it down a bit, make a 90 degree joint and add a small gasket.
Then a 1/2 hole is drilled on the oak crossbar and the small rotary bracket you see in the third photo, passing through.
Where the plow pushes the sand-
Before it finds the way to crush any block under the wheel again, turn it over and mix it up.
After cleaning up my leftovers, I ended up coming up with a somewhat old gas cylinder, which I think is the remainder of my experiment with self-feeding wood burners. . .
Anyway, I cut it into shape that looks like shoveling sand and quicksand with a angle grinder.
After I finished, I made some slots (
Drilling and hand gear)
On some steel bars
Cut into a \"plow \".
In order to weld the handle to two plows, I placed things on the grinder and welded them with stickiness before placing the components on the bench and welding them correctly.
To install the plough, the oak crossbar is drilled to install about 8mm bolts.
Next, put a piece of wood under the blade so it can be taken off the plate --
The height we want.
Then tighten the bolts and clamp the handle onto the beam.
In order for this to work properly, it needs a little fiddling
The tension on the belt is greater, slightly adjusting the plow blade, etc. .
But it does work! And very well. Yipppy.
I can set the microwave timer and turn it off and it will fill up the sand. . .
Water can be easily added to give it the correct consistency and mix quickly and evenly throughout the green sand.
When you are here, I might as well share my green sand recipe: 10% fine-ground bentonite clay (cat litter)
90% fine sand beach, some water, that\'s it!
Now that I have a simple hybrid technique, I might try some of the more exotic ones. .
Here\'s a little video of it in action (
Sorry, there is one on mo\'s FB.
Upload and embed when I have a chance).
Overall, this is a good job.
Several small problems that need/need attention: 1.
I found that only one of the two wheels did a lot and the other did not rotate.
After strengthening the pivot/bracket (see note)
In the tubes with wheels, they are placed more square on the plate, and now both rotate. Solved 2.
When I add water to the green sand, its lumps stick to the broken wheels (
You can see this is the video of the last link).
It\'s not a big problem because you can brush it off at the end, but it all adds time to the process I want to automate.
To solve this problem, I wrapped the surface of the wheel with smooth plastic repair tape. Solved 3.
The wheels squeaked too much. . .
Oil the pipe shaft-
This should be done from the beginning, but just test the principle of this device. Solved4.
I made an excellent adhesive for fine sand while lubricating the shaft.
I have seen this happen and it will soon wear the wheel interface if not checked.
So I should add some sort of rubber seal. Yet to do. . . 5.
The outermost plow blade is periodically scraped on the side of the basin.
Functionally, this is fine, but the noise it makes is like riding an over-active little cock on a poorly maintained trolley. . .
I thought I had fixed the issue with a slight adjustment but after the re-adjustment
Filled with sand, it turns out that the attached force of the sand on the blade will push a little more to the outer edge, but it will still scratch. . . .
This needs to be sorted out. . .
Besides that, it\'s great work-
Well, please: it\'s coming soon.
My friend, thank you very much for checking this manual!
Just like I have modified and updated a lot of chiansaw milling table tables over the years, this can also be seen as a creature.
When I learn and experience what this machine can provide, I edit and add to it.
There is a lot to discover when I deform and use this machine to weld and pottery.
I will also respond to your suggestions and ideas, so don\'t be shy when leaving comments!
Here\'s what this machine is going to do: connect if you find something interesting!
Leave a comment below, share it with your cycling friends, check out my YouTube channel FlowerinfElbow, subscribe to me on instructures, and/or see me on Facebook.
From the many mistakes I made during this build I learned a lot and I am very much looking forward to doing some more!